Making Waves: The Three C's and New Migrant Diasporas
The three key socio-economic aspects to the globalisation processes which I will focus on here. I call them the three C’s: that is comparative advantage, competitive advantage and collaborative advantage. Comparative advantage has always involved national level interactions as one nation traded its economic or social advantages against another. Thus those with better infrastructures, more resources, cheaper labour, and fewer restrictions have been able to bargain those advantages against other nations in such trading. The second C, competitive advantage, usually viewed as competition between firms rather than states , has seen increasing governmental involvement aimed at improving the competitive advantages of one nation’s firms relative to others (Porter, 1998,p19,p30,p33-35). In an asymmetrically loaded world of unevenly distributed power and resources, the third C, collaborative advantage --cooperating to leverage potential synergies to mutual advantage--continues to dynamically evolve and to pose problems as well as offering solutions. Former World Trade Organization Director-General Renato Ruggiero recently suggested: Our current Western society fails to acknowledge two megatrends: the world population growth in the next decade, and the fact that this growth will be primarily driven from nonindustrialized countries. This will increase the immigration pressures at our borders and cause a change in the demographic structure. (Cited in The MegaCommunity Manifesto, 2006, p 4). The International Organization for Migration called migration “…one of the defining global issues of the early twenty-first century, as more and more people are on the move today than at any other point in human history”(IOM, 2006). That is exacerbated by economic liberalisation and local insecurity. Currently 192 million people worldwide live outside their birthplaces ;around 3% of the global population (IOM, 2006). Forms of ‘flexible citizenship’ have been developed as a result of transnational migration patterns in many parts of the Pacific-Asian world and global human rights are often now superseding nationality in Europe and the developed world (Delanty,2006:6). Migrant smuggling now matches drug trafficking as a major income source for organised crime and as a significant global problem (IOM, 2006). Contention has been exacerbated by growth in newer categories of migrants and diaspora (Pedersen et al, 2004). Desertification, global warming and health scares will increase eco-refugees as well as economic migrants to advanced states.
Keywords: Globalisation, Economics and Migration Patterns, New Diaspora
Dr. Tom Cockburn
Dean's Unit, Australian School of Business, University of New South Wales