Citizenship and Processes of Citizen Formation in English Schools: 'New' Pedagogies and Hidden Curricula
This paper will draw upon my ongoing research to illuminate the significance for citizenship and the formation of citizens, of ‘new’ pedagogies and aspects of the hidden curricula, as found within selected case study schools in England. It will be argued that alongside the introduction of formal citizenship education programmes, individualised and competency-based forms of pedagogy (drawing on Bernstein ) are clearly discernable within some of the schools in the research sample. More specifically, it will be suggested that the calculation of individual pupil attainment targets, enhanced opportunities for ‘pupil voice’ and ‘choice’, the implementation of integrated curricula, as well as the prominence of ‘therapeutic’ orientations, all discernable in varying combinations within the different schools, may be fruitfully understood in terms of processes of citizen formation. Indeed, these pedagogic forms will be further analysed with reference to Nikolas Rose’s (1999) work, which has focused on what he views as a new mode of governmentality, namely governing in an ‘advanced liberal’ way. Whilst Rose’s analysis is useful, not least in highlighting key links between public policy, professional and institutional (including school) processes and efforts to reconstruct citizenship in the UK, it will also be suggested that John Clarke and Janet Newman’s work on 'The Managerial State' (2000) may provide an antidote to some of the more totalising tendencies of governmentality approaches, premised, as they are, upon broadly Foucauldian conceptions of power.
Keywords: Citizenship, Social Citizenship Rights, Education, Individualisation
PhD student, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge