Low Immunization Among Children in Slums of Mumbai
This paper examines utilization of immunization services available to the children in the slums in Mumbai.The standard of living index was constructed from household amenities such as, housing quality, sources of drinking water, electricity and toilet facilities. This study is based on the primary data, collected using cluster sampling of sample size of 433 reproductive women who have given at least one live birth prior to the survey. The findings revealed shocking low level of vaccination among the children of 12-23 months old from the Rafi Nagar slum. Only 71 percent of children were fully vaccinated, 6 percent did not receive any vaccinations at all and just 48 percent of nine months old children had primary vaccinations. Indeed vaccination coverage was higher for girls. Increase in birth order showed increase in BCG vaccination coverage and only 68 percent of children of illiterate mothers in this slum area were fully vaccinated. SLI categories showed consistent increase in receiving each specific vaccination except DPT and Measles and just one-third of children received vitamin A supplementation. It is further found that the vitamin A supplementation programme was weak in the slum. It is suggested that the measles vaccination programme has to stress not only on the coverage but also on its timing too including over all immunization and there is a need to improve awareness about immunization programme especially among the illiterate women in such slums.
Keywords: Child Immunization, Vaccination, Utilization, Mumbai Slum
Dr. Vijay M. Sarode
Lecturer in Statistics, Mathematics and Computer, Dept. of Statistics, Mathematics and Computer, Mulund College of College, Mulund(West), Mumbai-400 080
He has been working in Mulund College of Commerce, Mumbai as lecturer in Statistics, Mathematics and Computer since 1982 and since then teaching to the undergraduate courses in Statistics, Mathematics and Computer and has taught Compu-math at postgraduate level for 4 years. Author is at present doing Ph.D. in Statistics under the guidance of Dr. M.B. Joshi, Associate Professor, Department of P.S.M., Govt. Medical College, Aurangabad. His research topic is "Awareness of Health Care among Women in Slums in Greater Mumbai" and has submitted his thesis.
Author's major area of research interest is Statistics, Demography/Population Sciences and Social Sciences. His research project on "Reproductive Morbidity among Adolescent Women in Slums in Mumbai" was awarded as "Consolation Prize" in a seminar conducted by the University of Mumbai in September 2005. This research project was guided by Dr. C.P. Prakasam, Professor, Department of Morbidity and Mortality, IIPS, Mumbai.
Author also has presented his paper entitled "Menstruation Related Problems and their Treatment Seeking Behaviour among Adolescent Women in Slums in Mumbai." in the national conference organized by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (NIHFW) held during 16-18 March, 2006 in New Delhi. In addition to this, author was invited to present his research papers in the International Conferences, organized by the Population Association of America (PAA) in New York, USA in March, 2007 and the Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea in August, 2007 and three papers in the national level conferences, so far. The University Grants Commission, New Delhi and The Indian Council of Social Science Research, New Delhi respectively provided funding to the author to present his papers. Besides to this his paper is published in the international journal-CG Publisher, Australia.