The Exploration of the Formation and Development of the White Afrikaner Cultural Identity in South Africa Using Hill's Post-Jungian Model of the Development of the Self
A nation’s identity is read from historical events, the assumption being that the group’s values, customs, and psychology have been fundamentally shaped by those moments (Laubscher, 2005:309), and is constructed over time through discourse (Steyn, 2001:22). Several historical events influenced the shape and form of Afrikaner identity (Laubscher, 2005:309). Since cultural identities have histories and come from somewhere, it might change over time (Louw-Potgieter, 1988:i). It is therefore important, in the exploration thereof, to make use of a theoretical framework that can capture the dynamic nature of the forming, formation, and transformation of cultural identities.
Hill (1992) has developed a Post-Jungian model for the development of the Self, based on C.G. Jung’s early identification of the archetypal patterns of Masculine and Feminine. According to this model, four patterns underlie all human activity. These four patterns are the static Feminine, the dynamic Masculine, the static Masculine, and the dynamic Feminine. These patterns underlie the development of the Self and can also be used to identify developmental patterns that manifest culturally.
The purpose of this articIe is to use Hill’s understanding of the interplay between the Masculine and Feminine principles to explore and discuss historical events that shaped the development and formation of the Afrikaner cultural identity during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It is argued within the premises of Hill’s model that the earlier historical events leading to the formation of an Afrikaner cultural identity, took place under the auspices of the dynamic Masculine, and later on progressed to the static Masculine. Subsequently, a strong patrivalent culture pattern emerged. Over time, the excessive nature of the static Masculine within the patrivalent culture pattern, was clearly evident. It is further argued that the change and transformation of the Afrikaner cultural identity, under the auspices of the dynamic Feminine was inevitable, leaving the Afrikaner in a position where the reconstruction of their cultural identity or identities, is still emerging.
Keywords: Cultural patterns, White Afrikaner Cultural Identity, Masculine and Feminine Archetypes in Cultural Patterns, Post-Jungian Perspective on Cultural Patterns
Prof. Martina Kotzé
Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Psychology, University of the Free State
Dr. Loura Griessel
Senior Lecturer, Department of Industrial Psychology, University of the Free State