From Indigenous Knowledge into Endogenous Development: The Case of Sustainable Handicraft Livelihood in Rural Philippines
Indigenous knowledge is a local knowledge which is unique from culture to culture, from place to place. It is linked to the local people’s knowledge of their environment as reflected in their arts and crafts and thus become sources of livelihood, especially in the countryside. Since indigenous knowledge alone is not an answer for a sustainable development, eco-friendly and socio-culturally viable external ideas are also welcomed by the rural folks in order to compliment the existing ones, thus, endogenous development. Endogenous development is development from within, but built around the people’s indigenous or traditional knowledge systems and enhance by infusing culturally acceptable and environmentally stable ‘outside’ ideas to strengthen local economies as well. Parallel to these, the paper traced how the five handicraft livelihoods of Marinduque, such as, buntal loom weaving, morion mask carving, nito crafting and butterfly crafting emerged from local knowledge into enterprising livelihoods. With the advent of globalization, study also focused on how the local knowledge and skills are maintained and reinforced by the handicraft makers as reflected in product development, natural resources optimisation and local economy generation.
Keywords: Livelihoods, Rural Philippines, Indigenous Knowledge Systems Endogenous Development
Dr. Diosdado Zulueta
Research Specialist, Hand Craft Enterprise Development Centre, Marinduque State College