The Effect of Personal Values on Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs) were introduced by Organ and his colleagues (e.g. Bateman & Organ, 1983; Organ, 1988) as behaviors that indirectly affect organizational effectiveness. Since then the concept of OCB won a great popularity among researchers and managers. OCB defined by Organ (1988) as "Individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization". OCB include behaviors such as helping others, staying late or working weekends, performing at levels that exceed enforceable standards, tolerating inconveniencies on the job and being actively involved in company affaires.
There is a common assumption among most OCB’s researchers that the motivational source of citizenship behaviors is the willingness to help and cooperate. The motivation to engage in OCB, according to this assumption, derived from social motives and the willingness to contribute to the organization. This assumption caused a neglect of other possible motives of OCB (e.g. self enhancement). In order to explore other motives of OCB, we draw on Schwartz' values theory (1992), which deals with the basic values that guiding human behavior. We suggest that different forms of OCB will be related to individuals' differences in value priorities. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals with self transcendence values are likely to be engaged in helping behaviors, while individuals with self enhancement values are likely to be engaged in self learn behaviors. In addition, individuals with conservation values are likely to be engaged in sportsmanship and social harmony behaviors while individuals with openness to change values are likely to be engaged in taking charge and voice behaviors. Findings of two studies support the relationship between values and OCB. The implications of these findings to work motivation will be presented and discussed.
Keywords: Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Value, Value Priorities, Organizational Performance, Organizational Effectiveness, Work Motivation
Dr. Dina Van-Dijk
Lecturer, Health Systems Management, Ben-Gurion University
Dr. Tal Yaffe
Lecturer (Assistant Professor), School of Management, Ben Gurion University
Doctoratal Student, Hebrew University of Jerusalem